# Metric Volume

These are the two most common measurements:
 Milliliters Liters

A milliliter (that is "milli" and "liter" put together) is a very small amount of liquid.
Here is a milliliter of milk in a teaspoon.
It doesn't even fill the teaspoon!

 If you collect about 20 drops of water, you will have 1 milliliter: 20 drops of water  makes about 1 milliliter And a teaspoon can hold about five milliliters: 1 teaspoon of liquid  is about 5 milliliters
Milliliters are often written as ml (for short), so "100 ml" means "100 milliliters".
Here we have 150 ml of milk in a measuring cup.
It doesn't say "150" ... it says "50" ... but it is half-way between 100 and 200 so you can figure out it is 150 ml.

## Liter

liter is just a bunch of milliliters put all together. In fact, 1000 milliliters makes up 1 liter:
1 liter = 1,000 milliliters
This jug has exactly 1 liter of water in it.
Liters are often written as L (for short), so "3 L" means "3 Liters".
Milk, soda and other drinks are often sold in liters.
The next time you are at the store take a minute and look on the labels to see how many liters (or milliliters) are in each container!
Liter is abbreviated L (some people use lowercase l, but that looks too much like 1).

# Metric Length

You can measure how long things are, or how tall, or how far apart they are. Those are are all examples of length measurements.

Example: This fork is 20 centimeters long
These are the most common measurements:
 Millimeters Centimeters Meters Kilometers

Small units of length are called millimeters.
A millimeter is about the thickness of a plastic id card (or credit card).
Or about the thickness of 10 sheets of paper on top of each other.
This is a very small measurement!

When you have 10 millimeters, it can be called a centimeter.
1 centimeter = 10 millimeters
A fingernail is about one centimeter wide.

Two tape measures, one in mm, the other in cm
You might use millimeter or centimeters to measure how tall you are, or how wide a table is, but you would not use them to measure the length of football field. In order to do that, you can switch to meters.

meter is equal to 100 centimeters.
1 meter = 100 centimeters
The length of this guitar is about 1 meter
Meters might be used to measure the length of a house, or the size of a playground.
And because a centimeter is 10 millimeters:
1 meter = 1000 millimeters

kilometer is equal to 1000 meters.
When you need to get from one place to another, you measure the distance usingkilometers.
The distance from one city to another or how far a plane travels would be measured using kilometers.

1 centimeter = 10 millimeters
1 meter = 100 centimeters
1 kilometer = 1000 meters

## Lots of Examples

• about as long as a staple
• the width of a highlighter
• the diameter of a belly button
• the width of 5 CD's stacked on top of each other
• the thickness of a notepad.
• the radius (half the diameter) of a US penny
• a little more than a yard (1 yard is exactly 0.9144 meters)
• the width of a doorway (most doorways are about 0.8 to 0.9 m)
• half the length of a bed
• the width of a large fridge
• the height of a countertop
• four rungs up a ladder
• five steps up a staircase
• the depth of the shallow end of a swimming pool
• the width of a dining table
• the height of a 5 year old
• shoulder to opposite wrist of an adult
• outstreched arms of a child
• waist high on an adult
 One meter equals roughly one long step of an adult man.

• a little over half a mile
• a quarter of the average depth of the ocean
• how far you walk in 12 minutes
 One kilometer equals ten minutes' walk.

# Regular 2-D Shapes - Polygons

 Triangle Square Pentagon Hexagon Heptagon Octagon Nonagon Decagon Hendecagon Dodecagon These shapes are known as regular polygons. A polygon is a many sided shape with straight sides. To be a regular polygon all the sides and angles must be the same.

## Saturday, 22 October 2011

Math Games
http://www.maths-games.org/

# Fractions

A fraction is a part of a whole

### Slice a pizza, and you will have fractions:

 1/2 1/4 3/8 (One-Half) (One-Quarter) (Three-Eighths) The top number tells how many slices you have  The bottom number tells how many slices the pizza was cut into.

## Numerator / Denominator

We call the top number the Numerator, it is the number of parts you have.
We call the bottom number the Denominator, it is the number of parts the whole is divided into.
 Numerator Denominator
You just have to remember those names! (If you forget just think "Down"-ominator)
 The denominator is the bottom number in a fraction.It shows how many equal parts the item is divided into

## Equivalent Fractions

Some fractions may look different, but are really the same, for example:
 4/8 = 2/4 = 1/2 (Four-Eighths) Two-Quarters) (One-Half) = =
It is usually best to show an answer using the simplest fraction ( 1/2 in this case ). That is called Simplifying, or Reducing the Fraction

You can add fractions easily if the bottom number (the denominator) is the same:
 1/4 + 1/4 = 2/4 = 1/2 (One-Quarter) (One-Quarter) (Two-Quarters) (One-Half) + = =
Another example:
 5/8 + 1/8 = 6/8 = 3/4 + = =

# Ordering Numbers

"Waiter, I would like a 7 and a 3, please..."
NO, not THAT type of ordering. I mean putting them in order ...
To put numbers in order, place them from lowest (first) to highest (last). This is called "Ascending Order" (think of ascending a mountain)

 Example: Place 17, 5, 9 and 8 in ascending order.Answer: 5, 8, 9, 17

Sometimes you want the numbers to go the other way, from highest down to lowest, this is called "Descending Order" (think of a "steep descent")

 Example: Place 17, 5, 9 and 8 in descending order.Answer: 17, 9, 8, 5

Practice by neatening up your friends. Measure their heights, then place them in ascending order of height. Try it again, but use their weights.

## Tuesday, 18 October 2011

### Operasi Tambah

How to Add: 1 + 2 = 3